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Strongyloides filariform larva
taxon links Not MonophyleticNot MonophyleticNot Monophyletic[down<--]Bilateria Interpreting the tree
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Relationships based on SSU rDNA sequences after Blaxter et al. 1998, 2000. See Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships for a more traditional view.
Containing group: Bilateria

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

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Traditional consensus of nematode relationships after Blaxter et al. 1998.

Other Names for Nematoda


Aleshin, V. V., O. S. Kedrova, I. A. Milyutina, N. S. Vladychenskaya, and N. B. Petrov. 1998. Relationships among nematodes based on the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences: molecular evidence for monophyly of chromadorian and secernentian nematodes. Russian Journal of Nematology 6:175-184.

Aleshin, V. V., O. S. Kedrova, I. A. Milyutina, N. S. Vladychenskaya, and N. B. Petrov. 1998. Secondary structure of some elements of 18S rRNA suggests that strongylid and a part of rhabditid nematodes are monophyletic. FEBS-Letters 429:4-8.

Bird, A. F. and J. Bird. 1991. The Structure of Nematodes. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 316.

Blaxter, M. L., P. De Ley, J. R. Garey, L. X. Liu, P. Scheldeman, A. Vierstraete, J. R. Vanfleteren, L. Y. Mackey, M. Dorris, L. M. Frisse, J. T. Vida, and W. K. Thomas. 1998. A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda. Nature 392:71-75.

Blaxter, M. L., M. Dorris and P. De Ley. 2000. Patterns and processes in the evolution of animal parasitic nematodes. Nematology 2:43-55.

Blouin, M. S., C. A. Yowell, C. H. Courtney, and J. B. Dame. 1998. Substitution bias, rapid saturation, and the use of mtDNA for nematode systematics. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15:1719-1727.

de Ley, P. 2000. Lost in worm space: phylogeny and morphology as road maps to nematode diversity. Nematology 2:9-16.

Dorris, M., P. De Ley, and M. L. Blaxter. 1999. Molecular analysis of nematode diversity and the evolution of parasitism. Parasitology Today 15:188-193.

Hodda, M. 2007. Phylum Nematoda. Pages 265-293 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A., eds. Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668:1-766.

Holterman, M., A. van der Wurff, S. van den Elsen, H. van Megen, T. Bongers, O. Holovachov, J. Bakker, and J. Helder. 2006. Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown clades. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23(9):1792-1800.

Kampfer, S., C. Sturmbauer, and J. Ott. 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences from adenophorean nematodes and implications for the Adenophorea-Secernentea controversy. Invertebrate Biology 117:29-36.

Litvaitis, M. K., J. W. Bates, W. D. Hope, and T. Moens. 2000. Inferring a classification of the Adenophorea (Nematoda) from nucleotide sequences of the D3 expansion segment (26/28S rDNA). Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:911-922.

Lorenzen, S. 1994. The Phylogenetic Systematics of Free-Living Nematodes. The Ray Society, London.

Malakhov, V. V. 1994. Nematodes. Structure, Development, Classification and Phylogeny. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.

Meldal, B. H. M. , N. J. Debenham, P. De Ley, I. Tandingan De Ley, J. R. Vanfleteren, A. R. Vierstraete, W. Bert, G. Borgonie, T. Moens, P. A. Tyler, M. C. Austen, M. L. Blaxter, A. D. Rogers and P. J. D. Lambshead. 2007. An improved molecular phylogeny of the Nematoda with special emphasis on marine taxa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42(3):622-636.

Nadler, S. A., P. De Ley, M. Mundo-Ocampo, A. B. Smythe, S. P. Stock, D. Bumbarger, B. J. Adams, I. Tandingan De Ley, O. Holovachov and J.G. Baldwin. 2006. Phylogeny of Cephalobina (Nematoda): Molecular evidence for recurrent evolution of probolae and incongruence with traditional classifications. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(3):696-711.

Nielsen, C. 1998. Systematics - Sequences lead to tree of worms. Nature 392:25-26.

Poinar, G. O. 1983. The Natural History of Nematodes. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Powers, T. O., T. C. Todd, A. M. Burnell, P. C. B. Murray, C. C. Fleming, A. L. Szalanski, B. A. Adams, and T. S. Harris. 1997. The rDNA internal transcribed spacer region as a taxonomic marker for nematodes. Journal of Nematology 29:441-450.

Sommer, R. J., C. B. Sigrist, K. Grandien, B. Jungblut, A. Eizinger, H. Adamis, and I. Schlak. 1999. A phylogenetic interpretation of nematode vulval variations. Invertebrate Reproduction & Development 36:57-65.

Stone, A. R., H. M. Platt, and L. F. Khalil (eds.) 1983. Concepts in Nematode Systematics. Systematics Association special volume, no. 22. Academic Press, New York.

Voronov, D. A., Y. V. Panchin, and S. E. Spiridonov. 1998. Nematode phylogeny and embryology. Nature 395:28-28.

Wright, K. A. 1991. Nematoda. Pages 111–195 in: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Vol. 4. F. W. Harrison and E. E. Ruppert, eds. Wiley-Liss, New York.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Strongyloides filariform larva
Scientific Name Strongyloides
Creator CDC/Dr. Mae Melvin
Life Cycle Stage filariform larva
Source Collection Public Health Image Library (Centers for Disease Control)
About This Page

Page: Tree of Life Nematoda. Roundworms. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Nematoda. Roundworms. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Nematoda/2472/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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