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Todarodes Steenstrup 1880

Michael Vecchione and Richard E. Young
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taxon links [up-->]Todarodes pacificus [up-->]Todarodes angolensis [up-->]Todarodes sagittatus [up-->]Todarodes filippovae [up-->]Todarodes pusillus [down<--]Todarodinae Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Todarodinae


The five species of Todarodes are partially separated by distribution: T. pacificus, a moderate-sized species (ca. 350 mm ML) and one of the world's most abundant commercial squids, occurs over the shelf and oceanic waters around Japan in the northwest Pacific; the closely related dwarf species (<80 mm ML), T. pusillus occurs in the tropical-subtropical waters of the shelf and upper slope of northern Australia. T. sagittatus, a large species (>500 mm ML) occurs primarily in the northeast Atlantic over the continental slope and into oceanic waters. T. angolensis (>500 mm ML) seems to be the south Atlantic counterpart of T. sagittatus but many details of its distribution are uncertain. T. filippovae (>500 mm ML) has an oceanic circumpolar distribution within the sub-Antarctic and subtropical waters of the Southern Ocean and overlaps the distribution of T. angolensis. (Dunning and Wormuth, 1998; Rodhouse, 1998)

Brief diagnosis:

 A Todarodinae with ...


  1. Arms
    1. Arm protective membranes and trabeculae normal. 
    2. Right arm IV hectocotylized.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacular stalks without free trabeculae.
    2. Large, medial club suckers with 20 or fewer long, pointed teeth, with single larger tooth distally in some species.
    3. Largest manus sucker with teeth linked by intermediate ridges or plates.

  3. Comparison of species (modified from Dunning and Wormuth, 1998):
      T. sagittatus
    T. angolensis
    T. filippovae
    T. pacificus
    T. pusillus
    No. manus sucker rows
    14-18 14-18
    No. teeth in largest club sucker
    Diameter of largest club sucker (% of ML)


Characters from Dunning and Wormuth (1998)


North and South Atlantic, northeastern Indian, western and southeastern Pacific, and Southern oceans.


Dunning, M. C. and J. H. Wormuth. 1998. The ommastrephid squid genus Todarodes: A review of systematics, distribution, and biology (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea). . Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 586: 385-391.

Rodhouse, P. D. 1998. Todarodes filippovae in the Southern Ocean: an appraisal for exploitation and management. p. 207-215, In: Large Pelagic Squids, T. Okutani (Ed.) Japan Marine Fishery Resources Research Center, Tokyo, 269 pp.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Todarodes filippovae
Location NW Chatham Rise (near New Zealand) at 4311'S, 17421'E
Comments Bottom trawl at at 590 m depth
Acknowledgements National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA)
Identified By Darren Stevens
Sex Female
Life Cycle Stage Mature
View Ventral
Size 491 mm ML
Collection NIWA
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0.
Copyright ©
About This Page

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA

University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Michael Vecchione at and Richard E. Young at

Page: Tree of Life Todarodes Steenstrup 1880. Authored by Michael Vecchione and Richard E. Young. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Vecchione, Michael and Richard E. Young. 2011. Todarodes Steenstrup 1880. Version 30 November 2011 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Todarodes/19939/2011.11.30 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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